Annual Reports & Publications

Annual Reports

Archived record of temperature and salinity measurements for each year collected at shoreline stations along the California coast from La Jolla to Trinidad. Monthly means and extreme values are tabulated for each month and station. The data are also shown in plots alongside a climatological mean using all data for each station.

Publications

2022

Southern California winter precipitation variability revealed by 100-year ocean salinity record

Byrne, S., Merrield, M., Carter, M., Cayan, D., Flick, R., Gershunov, A., & Giddings, S. (2022). Southern California winter precipitation variability revealed by 100-year ocean salinity record. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1769820/v1

2021

Episodes of high recruitment buffer against climate-driven mass mortality events in a North Pacific seabird population

Johns, M. E., Warzybok, P., Jahncke, J., Doak, P., Lindberg, M., & Breed, G. A. (2021). Episodes of high recruitment buffer against climate-driven mass mortality events in a North Pacific seabird population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 91(2), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13630

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) migration timing driven by estuary outflow and sea surface temperature in the San Francisco Bay-Delta, California

Goertler, P., Mahardja, B., & Sommer, T. (2021). Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) migration timing driven by estuary outflow and sea surface temperature in the San Francisco Bay-Delta, California. Scientific Reports, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80517-5

Citizen-sourced sightings and underwater photography reveal novel insights about green sea turtle distribution and ecology in Southern California

Hanna, M. E., Chandler, E. M., Semmens, B. X., Eguchi, T., Lemons, G. E., & Seminoff, J. A. (2021). Citizen-sourced sightings and underwater photography reveal novel insights about green sea turtle distribution and ecology in Southern California. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.671061

Spatial and temporal variations in Synechococcus microdiversity in the Southern California coastal ecosystem

Nagarkar, M., Wang, M., Valencia, B., & Palenik, B. (2021). Spatial and temporal variations in Synechococcus microdiversity in the Southern California coastal ecosystem. Environmental Microbiology, 23(1), 252–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15307

A closer look at power-law scaling applied to sea surface temperature from scripps pier using empirical mode decomposition

Breaker, L. C., & Carroll, D. (2021). A closer look at power-law scaling applied to sea surface temperature from scripps pier using empirical mode decomposition. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 38(4), 777–787. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0124.1

Time lags: insights from the U.S. Long Term Ecological Research Network

Rastetter, E. B., Ohman, M. D., Elliott, K. J., Rehage, J. S., Rivera-Monroy, V. H., Boucek, R. E., Castañeda-Moya, E., Danielson, T. M., Gough, L., Groffman, P. M., Jackson, C. R., Miniat, C. F., & Shaver, G. R. (2021). Time lags: insights from the U.S. Long Term Ecological Research Network. Ecosphere, 12(5). https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3431

Spatial and temporal variations in Synechococcus microdiversity in the Southern California coastal ecosystem

Nagarkar, M., Wang, M., Valencia, B., & Palenik, B. (2021). Spatial and temporal variations in Synechococcus microdiversity in the Southern California coastal ecosystem. Environmental Microbiology, 23(1), 252–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15307

2020

Causality analysis of climate and ecosystem time series

Sefidmazgi, M. G., & Sefidmazgi, A. G. (2020). Causality analysis of climate and ecosystem time series. Evaluating Climate Change Impacts, 139–162. PDF

A century of Southern California Coastal ocean temperature measurements

Rasmussen, L. L., Carter, M. L., Flick, R. E., Hilbern, M., Fumo, J. T., Cornuelle, B. D., Gordon, B. K., Bargatze, L. F., Gordon, R. L., & McGowan, J. A. (2020). A century of Southern California coastal ocean temperature measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(5). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015673

Contextualizing marine heatwaves in the Southern California Bight under anthropogenic climate change

Fumo, J. T., Carter, M. L., Flick, R. E., Rasmussen, L. L., Rudnick, D. L., & Iacobellis, S. F. (2020). Contextualizing marine heatwaves in the Southern California Bight under anthropogenic climate change.  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(5). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015674

Decadal variability in twentieth-century ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem

Osborne, E. B., Thunell, R. C., Gruber, N., Feely, R. A., & Benitez-Nelson, C. R. (2020). Decadal variability in twentieth-century ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem. Nature Geoscience, 13(1), 43–49. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0499-z

Benthic Heterobranch Sea Slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from Santa Barbara County, California I. Review of the literature, and Naples Point, 2002-2019

Goddard, J. H. R., Goddard, W. M., & Goddard, Z. E. (2020). Benthic Heterobranch Sea Slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from Santa Barbara County, California I. Review of the literature, and Naples Point, 2002-2019. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 66(10), 2002–2019. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339777121

2019 and Earlier

Breaker, L. C. (2019). Long-range persistence in sea surface temperature off the coast of central California. Journal of Ocean and Climate: Science, Technology and Impacts, 9, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1759313118791113

Breaker, L. C., & Carroll, D. (2019). The Impact of Regime Shifts on Long-Range Persistence and the Scaling of Sea Surface Temperature Off the Coast of California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014922
 
Cordero-Quirós, N., Miller, A. J., Subramanian, A. C., Luo, J. Y., & Capotondi, A. (2019). Composite physical–biological El Niño and La Niña conditions in the California Current System in CESM1-POP2-BEC. Ocean Modelling, 142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2019.101439
 
Saha, G., & Chauhan, N. (2019, March 1). Dependency Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature on Sea Bottom Temperature and Sea Surface Salinity. 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies, i-PACT 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/i-PACT44901.2019.8960019
 

Mcgowan, J. A., Deyle, E. R., Ye, H., Carter, M. L., Perretti, C. T., Seger, K. D., De Verneil, A., & Sugihara, G. (2018). Predicting coastal algal blooms in southern California. Ecology, 98(5), 1419–1433. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1804

García-Reyes, M., & Sydeman, W. J. (2017). California Multivariate Ocean Climate Indicator (MOCI) and marine ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Indicators, 72, 521–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.08.045

Tommasi, D., Stock, C. A., Pegion, K., Vecchi, G. A., Methot, R. D., Alexander, M. A., & Checkley, D. M. (2017). Improved management of small pelagic fisheries through seasonal climate prediction. Ecological Applications, 27(2), 378–388. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1458

Bellquist, L. F., Graham, J. B., Barker, A., Ho, J., & Semmens, B. X. (2016). Long-Term Dynamics in “Trophy” Sizes of Pelagic and Coastal Pelagic Fishes among California Recreational Fisheries (1966–2013). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 145(5), 977–989. https://doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2016.1185035

Skern-Mauritzen, M., Ottersen, G., Handegard, N. O., Huse, G., Dingsør, G. E., Stenseth, N. C., & Kjesbu, O. S. (2016). Ecosystem processes are rarely included in tactical fisheries management. Metroeconomica, 67(3), 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12111

Hubbell, M. (2016). El Niño, climate change and record high sea surface temperatures at the Scripps Pier. In Senior Project Research Paper

Obaza, A., Hoffman, R., & Clausing, R. (2015). Long-term stability of eelgrass fish assemblages in two highly developed coastal estuaries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 22(3), 224–238. https://doi.org/10.1111/fme.12119

Kim, S. Y., & Cornuelle, B. D. (2015). Coastal ocean climatology of temperature and salinity off the Southern California Bight: Seasonal variability, climate index correlation, and linear trend. Progress in Oceanography, 138, 136–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.001

Ye, H., Deyle, E. R., Gilarranz, L. J., & Sugihara, G. (2015). Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping. Scientific Reports, 5. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14750

Matthews, J. B., & Matthews, J. B. R. (2014). Physics of Climate Change: Harmonic and exponential processes from in situ ocean timeseries observations show rapid asymmetric warming. Journal of Advances in Physics, 6(2), 1135–1171. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275335025

Ebert, T. A. (2014). Temporal changes in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus along the west coast of North America. In Climate change perspectives from the Atlantic: Past, present and future (pp. 443–460). Universidad de La Laguna. PDF

Checkley, D. M. J., & Lindegren, M. (2014). Sea surface temperature variability at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44, 2877–2892. https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-0225.1

Miller, E. F., & McGowan, J. A. (2013). Faunal shift in southern california’s coastal fishes: A new assemblage and trophic structure takes hold. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 127, 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.04.014

Seubert, E. L., Gellene, A. G., Howard, M. D. A., Connell, P., Ragan, M., Jones, B. H., Runyan, J., & Caron, D. A. (2013). Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(10), 6878–6895. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1420-0

Lindegren, M., & Checkley, D. M. (2013). Temperature dependence of pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) recruitment in the California current ecosystem revisited and revised. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70(2), 245–252. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2012-0211

Carson, H. S., López-Duarte, P. C., Cook, G. S., Fodrie, F. J., Becker, B. J., DiBacco, C., & Levin, L. A. (2013). Temporal, spatial, and interspecific variation in geochemical signatures within fish otoliths, bivalve larval shells, and crustacean larvae. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 473, 133–148. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10078

Walker, B. D., & McCarthy, M. D. (2012). Elemental and isotopic characterization of dissolved and particulate organic matter in a unique California upwelling system: Importance of size and composition in the export of labile material. Limnology and Oceanography, 57(6), 1757–1774. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.6.1757

Sugihara, G., May, R., Ye, H., Hsieh, C. H., Deyle, E., Fogarty, M., & Munch, S. (2012). Detecting causality in complex ecosystems. Science, 338(6106), 496–500. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227079

Santos, F., Gomez-Gesteira, M., deCastro, M., & Alvarez, I. (2012). Differences in coastal and oceanic SST trends due to the strengthening of coastal upwelling along the Benguela current system. Continental Shelf Research, 34, 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2011.12.004

Iles, A. C., Gouhier, T. C., Menge, B. A., Stewart, J. S., Haupt, A. J., & Lynch, M. C. (2012). Climate-driven trends and ecological implications of event-scale upwelling in the California Current System. Global Change Biology, 18(2), 783–796. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02567.x

Moore, R. H., Miller, E. F., & Love, M. (2011). Southern occurrence of the sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus). Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences, 110(3), 184–188. https://doi.org/10.3160/0038-3872-110.3.184

Miller, E. F., Pondella, D. J., Beck, D. S., & Herbinson, K. T. (2011). Decadal-scale changes in southern California sciaenids under different levels of harvesting pressure. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(10), 2123–2133. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr167

Washburn, L., Fewings, M. R., Melton, C., & Gotschalk, C. (2011). The propagating response of coastal circulation due to wind relaxations along the central California coast. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 116(12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007502

Pardo, P. C., Padín, X. A., Gilcoto, M., Farina-Busto, L., & Pérez, F. F. (2011). Evolution of upwelling systems coupled to the long-term variability in sea surface temperature and Ekman transport. Climate Research, 48(2–3), 231–246. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00989

Llovel, W., Meyssignac, B., & Cazenave, A. (2011). Steric sea level variations over 2004-2010 as a function of region and depth: Inference on the mass component variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(15). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047411

Chang, G., & Twardowski, M. S. (2011). Effects of physical forcing and particle characteristics on underwater imaging performance. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 116(10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007098

Litzow, M. (2010). Four decades of climate-biology covariation in Alaskan and North Pacific ecosystems: an ecosystem indicator approach.

Parnell, P. E., Miller, E. F., Lennert-Cody, C. E., Dayton, P. K., Carter, M. L., & Stebbins, T. D. (2010). The response of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) in southern California to low-frequency climate forcing. Limnology and Oceanography, 55(6), 2686–2702. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.6.2686

Santoro, A. E., Nidzieko, N. J., Van Dijken, G. L., Arrigo, K. R., & Boehm, A. B. (2010). Contrasting spring and summer phytoplankton dynamics in the nearshore Southern California Bight. Limnology and Oceanography, 55(1), 264–278. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0264

Sydeman, W. J., & Thompson, S. A. (2010). The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA), Module II: Trends and variability in climate-ecosystem state. www.faralloninstitute.org

McClatchie, S., Goericke, R., Auad, G., & Hill, K. (2010). Re-assessment of the stock-recruit andtemperature-recruit relationships for Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 67(11), 1782–1790. https://doi.org/10.1139/F10-101

Breaker, L. C., & Welschmeyer, N. A. (2010). Detecting, characterizing and determining the biological response to regime shifts off the California coast. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9296c41b 

Llovel, W., Guinehut, S., & Cazenave, A. (2010). Regional and interannual variability in sea level over 2002-2009 based on satellite altimetry, Argo float data and GRACE ocean mass. Ocean Dynamics, 60(5), 1193–1204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-010-0324-0

Lluch-Cota, S. E., Parés-Sierra, A., Magaña-Rueda, V. O., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Bazzino, G., Herrera-Cervantes, H., & Lluch-Belda, D. (2010). Changing climate in the Gulf of California. Progress in Oceanography, 87(1–4), 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.007

Mazur, L., Milanes, C., Randles, K., & Siegal, D. (2010). Indicators of climate change in California: environmental justice impacts. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. PDF

Norton, J. G., Herrick, S. F., & Mason, J. E. (2009). Fisheries abundance cycles in ecosystem and economic management of California fish and invertebrate resources. In The Future of Fisheries Science in North America (pp. 227–244). Springer. http://www.pfeg.noaa.gov/

Breaker, L. C., & Flora, S. J. (2009). Regime shifts in sea-surface temperature off Southern California and Hawai’i. Pacific Science, 63(1), 39–60. https://doi.org/10.2984/1534-6188(2009)63[39:EOARSI]2.0.CO;2

Gelpi, C. G., & Norris, K. E. (2008). Seasonal temperature dynamics of the upper ocean in the Southern California Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(4). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003820

Breaker, L. C. (2008). Corrigendum to “A closer look at regime shifts based on coastal observations along the eastern boundary of the North Pacific” [Continental Shelf Research 27 (2007) 2250–2277]. In Continental Shelf Research (Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 503–504). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2007.10.003

Stammer, D., Park, S., Köhl, A., Lukas, R., & Santiago-Mandujano, F. (2008). Causes for large-scale hydrographic changes at the Hawaii Ocean time series station. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38(9), 1931–1948. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JPO3751.1

Blanchette, C. A., Melissa Miner, C., Raimondi, P. T., Lohse, D., Heady, K. E. K., & Broitman, B. R. (2008). Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Biogeography, 35(9), 1593–1607. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01913.x

Herrick, S. F., Norton, J. G., Mason, J. E., & Bessey, C. (2007). Management application of an empirical model of sardine-climate regime shifts. Marine Policy, 31(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2006.05.005

Mckinnell, S. M., & Crawford, W. R. (2007). The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and surface temperature variability in the northeast Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 112(2). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003671

Breaker, L. C. (2007). A closer look at regime shifts based on coastal observations along the eastern boundary of the North Pacific. Continental Shelf Research, 27(17), 2250–2277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2007.05.018

Kim, H. J., & Miller, A. J. (2007). Did the thermocline deepen in the California current after the 1976/77 climate regime shift? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37(6), 1733–1739. https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO3058.1

Shanks, A. L. (2006). Mechanisms of cross-shelf transport of crab megalopae inferred from a time series of daily abundance. Marine Biology, 148(6), 1383–1398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0162-7

Breaker, L. C. (2006). Nonlinear aspects of sea surface temperature in Monterey Bay. Progress in Oceanography, 69(1), 61–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2006.02.015

Busse, L. B., Venrick, E. L., Antrobus, R., Miller, P. E., Vigilant, V., Silver, M. W., Mengelt, C., Mydlarz, L., & Prezelin, B. B. (2006). Domoic acid in phytoplankton and fish in San Diego, CA, USA. Harmful Algae, 5(1), 91–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2005.06.005

Breaker, L. C., Broenkow, W. W., Denny, M. W., & Beatman, L. V. (2005). Reconstructing an 83-year time series of daily sea surface temperature at Pacific Grove, California. http://hdl.handle.net/1834/20890

Denny, M. W., Helmuth, B., Leonard, G. H., Harley, C. D. G., Hunt, L. J. H., & Nelson, E. K. (2004). Quantifying scale in ecology: Lessons from a wave-swept shore. Ecological Monographs, 74(3), 513–532. https://doi.org/10.1890/03-4043

Schiel, D. R., Steinbeck, J. R., & Foster, M. S. (2004). Ten years of induced ocean warming causes comprehensive changes in marine benthic communities. Ecology, 85(7), 1833–1839. https://doi.org/10.1890/03-3107

Norton, J. G., & Mason, J. E. (2003). Environmental influences on species composition of the commercial harvest of finfish and invertebrates off California. CalCOFI Reports, 44, 123–133. PDF

Mendelssohn, R., Schwing, F. B., & Bograd, S. J. (2003). Spatial structure of subsurface temperature variability in the California Current, 1950-1993. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 108(C3). https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jc001568

Breaker, L. C., Liu, P. C., & Torrence, C. (2001). Intraseasonal oscillations in sea surface temperature, wind stress, and sea level off the central California coast. Continental Shelf Research, 21, 727–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00080-7

Hare, S. R., & Mantua, N. J. (2000). Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Progress in Oceanography, 47, 103–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(00)00033-1

Sagarin, R. D., Barry, J. P., Gilman, S. E., & Baxter, C. H. (1999). Climate-related change in an intertidal community over short and long time scales. Ecological Monographs, 69(4), 465–490. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0465:CRCIAI]2.0.CO;2

Norton, J. G. (1999). Apparent habitat extensions of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) in response to climate transients in the California Current. Scientia Marina, 63(3–4), 239–260. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.1999.63n3-4261

McGowan, J. A., Cayan, D. R., & Dorman, L. M. (1998). Climate-Ocean Variability and Ecosystem Response in the Northeast Pacific. Science, 281(5374), 210–217. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5374.210

Lynn, R. J. (1998). The state of the California current, 1997-1998: transition to El Niño conditions. CalCOFl Reports, 39, 25–49. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43400

Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., & Francis®, R. C. (1997). A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78(6), 1069–1079. https://doi.org/0.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1069:APICOW>2.0.CO;2

Zheng, X., Basher, R. E., & Thompson, C. S. (1997). Trend detection in regional-mean temperature series: maximum, minimum, mean, diurnal range, and SST. Journal of Climate, 10(2), 317–326. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0317:TDIRMT>2.0.CO;2

Tegner, M. J., Dayton, P. K., Edwards, P. B., & Riser, K. L. (1997). Large-scale, low-frequency oceanographic effects on kelp forest succession: a tale of two cohorts. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 146, 117–134. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps146117

Cisneros-Mata, M. A., Brey, T., Jarre-Teichmann, A., Garcia-Franco, W., & Montemayor-López, G. (1996). Artificial neural networks to forecast biomass of Pacific sardine and its environment. Ciencias Marinas, 22(4), 427–442. https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.v22i4.876

Basher, R. E., & Thompson, C. S. (1996). Relationship of air temperatures in New Zealand to atmospheric circulation regional anomalies in sea-surface temperature and atmosphere circulation. International Journal of Climatology, 16, 405–425. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199604)16:4<405::AID-JOC14>3.0.CO;2-T

Porter, D. L., & Shih, H. H. (1996). Investigations of temperature effects on NOAA’s next generation water level measurement system. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 13, 714–725. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0714:IOTEON>2.0.CO;2

Lenarz, W. H., Ventresca, D. A., Graham, W. M., Schwing, F. B., & Chavez, F. (1995). Explorations of El Niño events and associated biological population dynamics off central California. Population Dynamics and El Niño Events CalCOFi Reports, 36, 106–119. PDF

Pineda, J. (1995). An internal tidal bore regime at nearsbore stations along western U.S.A.: Predictable upwelling within the lunar cycle. Continental Shelf Reserarch, 15(8), 1023–1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4343(95)80007-Z

Parrish, R. H., & Mallicoate, D. L. (1995). Variation in the condition factors of California pelagic fishes and associated environmental factors. Fisheries Oceanography, 4(2), 171–190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.1995.tb00070.x

Jacobson, L. D., & MacCall, A. D. (1995). Stock-recruitment models for Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 566–577. https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-057

Barry, J. P., Baxter, C. H., Sagarin, R. D., & Gilman, S. E. (1995). Climate-related, long-term faunal changes in a California rocky intertidal community. Science, 267(5198), 672–675. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.267.5198.672

Folland, C. K., & Salinger, M. J. (1995). Surface temperature trends and variations in New Zealand and the surrounding ocean, 1871-1993. International Journal of Climatology, 15, 1195–1218. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370151103

Pineda, J. (1994). Internal tidal bores in the nearshore: Warm-water fronts, seaward gravity currents and the onshore transport of neustonic larvae. Journal of Marine Research, 52, 427–458. https://doi.org/10.1357/0022240943077046

Rhoades, D. A., & Salinger, M. J. (1993). Adjustment of temperature and rainfall records for site changes. International Journal of Climatology, 13, 899–913. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370130807

Dayton, P. K., Tegner, M. J., Parnell, P. E., & Edwards, P. B. (1992). Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecological Monographs, 62(3), 421–445. https://doi.org/10.2307/2937118

Pineda, J. (1991). Predictable upwelling and the shoreward transport of planktonic larvae by internal tidal bores. Science, 253(5019), 548–551. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5019.548

Breaker, L. C. (1989). El Niño and related variability in sea-surface temperature along the central California coast. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, 55, 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1029/GM055p0133

Breaker, L. C., & Lewis, P. A. W. (1988). A 40-50 day oscillation in sea-surface temperature along the Central California coast. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 26, 395–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(88)90020-0

Breaker, L. C., & Mooers, C. K. N. (1986). Oceanic variability off the Central California Coast. Progress in Oceanography, 17, 71–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(86)90025-X

Gunnill, F. C. (1985). Population fluctuations of seven macroalgae in Southern California during 1981-1983 including effects of severe storms and an El Niño. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 85, 149–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(85)90140-6

Dayton, P. K., & Tegner, M. J. (1984). Catastrophic storms, El Niño, and patch stability in a Southern California kelp community. Science, 224(4646), 283–285. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.224.4646.283

California State Water Resources Control Board, S. and M. S. (1980). California marine waters areas of special biological significance reconnaissance survey report. PDF

List, E. J., & Koh, R. C. Y. (1976). Variations in coastal temperatures on the southern and central California coast. Journal of Geophysical Research, 81(12), 1971–1979. https://doi.org/10.1029/jc081i012p01971

Cox, R. A. (1963). The Salinity Problem. Progress in Oceanography, 1, 243–261. https://doi.org/10.1029/jc081i012p01971

Berner, L. D., & Reid, J. L. (1961). On the response to changing temperature of the temperature-limited plankter Doliolum denticulatum Quoy and Gaimard 1835. Limnology and Oceanography, 6(2), 205–215. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1961.6.2.0205

Hester, F. J. (1961). Method of predicting tuna catch by using coastal sea-surface temperatures. California Fish and Game, 47(4), 313–326. PDF

Arthur, R. S. (1954). Oscillations in sea temperature at Scripps and Oceanside Piers. Deep-Sea Research, 2, 129–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6313(55)90013-7

Sverdrup, H. U. (1941). The Pacific Ocean. Science, 94(2439), 287–293. PDF